Alcohol & Drugs
Importance of Alcohol Awareness
Month - April
Are Alcohol and Suicide Linked?
You Risk It: Know the law
Underage Drinking in Oregon
I have a Drug or Alcohol Problem?
with your kids about alcohol & drugsl
We need to help our kids to distinguish fact from fiction. And it's not too soon to begin. National studies show that the average age when a child first tries alcohol is 11; for marijuana, it's 12. And many kids start becoming curious about these substances even sooner. So let's get started!
Student surveys reveal that when parents listen to their children's feelings and concerns, their kids feel comfortable talking with them and are more likely to stay drug-free.
Role play how to say "no"
Role play ways in which your child can refuse to go along with his friends without becoming a social outcast. Try something like this, "Let's play a game. Suppose you and your friends are at Andy's house after school and they find some beer in the refrigerator and ask you to join them in drinking it. The rule in our family is that children are not allowed to drink alcohol. So what could you say?"
If your child comes up with a good response, praise him. If he doesn't, offer a few suggestions like, "No, thanks. Let's play with Sony PlayStation instead," or "No thanks. I don't drink beer. I need to keep in shape for basketball."
Allow your child plenty of opportunity to become a confident decision-maker. An 8-year-old is capable of deciding if she wants to invite lots of friends to her birthday party or just a close pal or two. A 12-year-old can choose whether she wants to go out for chorus or join the school band. As your child becomes more skilled at making all kinds of good choices, both you and she will feel more secure in her ability to make the right decision concerning alcohol and drugs if and when the time arrives.
Provide age-appropriate information
Make sure the information that you offer fits the child's age and stage. When your 6 or 7-year-old is brushing his teeth, you can say, "There are lots of things we do to keep our bodies healthy, like brushing our teeth. But there are also things we shouldn't do because they hurt our bodies, like smoking or taking medicines when we are not sick."
If you are watching TV with your 8 year-old and marijuana is mentioned on a program, you can say, "Do you know what marijuana is? It's a bad drug that can hurt your body." If your child has more questions, answer them. If not, let it go. Short, simple comments said and repeated often enough will get the message across.
You can offer your older child the same message, but add more drug-specific information. For example, you might explain to your 12-year-old what marijuana and crack look like, their street names and how they can affect his body.
Establish a clear family position on drugs
It's okay to say, "We don't allow any drug use and children in this family are not allowed to drink alcohol. The only time that you can take any drugs is when the doctor or Mom or Dad gives you medicine when you're sick. We made this rule because we love you very much and we know that drugs can hurt your body and make you very sick; some may even kill you. Do you have any questions?"
Be a good example
Children will do what you do much more readily than what you say. So try not to reach for a beer the minute you come home after a tough day; it sends the message that drinking is the best way to unwind. Offer dinner guests nonalcoholic drinks in addition to wine and spirits. And take care not to pop pills, even over-the-counter remedies, indiscriminately. Your behavior needs to reflect your beliefs.
Discuss what makes a good friend
Since peer pressure is so important when it comes to kids' involvement with drugs and alcohol, it makes good sense to talk with your children about what makes a good friend. To an 8-year-old you might say, "A good friend is someone who enjoys the same games and activities that you do and who is fun to be around." 11 to 12-year-olds can understand that a friend is someone who shares their values and experiences, respects their decisions and listens to their feelings. Once you've gotten these concepts across, your children will understand that "friends" who pressure them to drink or smoke pot aren't friends at all. Additionally, encouraging skills like sharing and cooperation -- and strong involvement in fun, healthful activities (such as team sports or scouting) -- will help your children make and maintain good friendships as they mature and increase the chance that they'll remain drug-free.
Kids who feel good about themselves are much less likely than other kids to turn to illegal substances to get high. As parents, we can do many things to enhance our children's self-image. Here are some pointers:
If your child becomes withdrawn, loses weight, starts doing poorly in school, turns extremely moody, has glassy eyes -- or if the drugs in your medicine cabinet seem to be disappearing too quickly -- talk with your child and reach out to any one of the organizations listed here. You'll be helping your youngster to a healthier, happier future.
Offer lots of praise for any job well done.
If you need to criticize your child, talk about the action, not the person. If your son gets a math problem wrong, it's better to say, "I think you added wrong. Let's try again."
Assign do-able chores. A 6-year-old can bring her plate over to the sink after dinner; a 12-year-old can feed and walk the dog after school. Performing such duties and being praised for them helps your child feel good about himself.
Spend one-on-one time with your youngster. Setting aside at least 15 uninterrupted minutes per child per day to talk, play a game, or take a walk together, lets her know you care.
Say, "I love you." Nothing will make your child feel better.
Repeat the message
Information and lessons about drugs are important enough to repeat frequently. So be sure to answer your children's questions as often as they ask them to initiate conversation whenever the opportunity arises.
If you suspect a problem, seek help
While kids under age
12 rarely develop a substance problem, it can -- and does --
happen. If your child becomes withdrawn, loses weight,
starts doing poorly in school, turns extremely moody, has
glassy eyes -- or if the drugs in your medicine cabinet seem
to be disappearing too quickly -- talk with your child and
reach out to any one of the organizations listed here.
You'll be helping your youngster to a healthier, happier
with your kids about drugs
Talking about issues such as drugs may be difficult. This card is designed to help you discuss drugs more easily. By maintaining open communication and giving them the truth, you can help your child live a drug-free life.
What do you say?
Tell them that you love them and you want them to live a healthy and happy life.
Say you do not find alcohol and other illegal drug use acceptable. Many parents never state this simple principle.
Explain how this use hurts people.
Discuss the legal issues. A conviction for a drug offense can lead to time in prison or cost someone a job, driver's license, or college loan.
Talk about positive, drug-free alternatives and how you can explore them together. Some ideas include sports, reading, movies, bike rides, hikes, camping, cooking, games and concerts. Involve your kids' friends.
How do you say it?
Calmly and openly - don't exaggerate. The facts speak for themselves.
Face to face - exchange information and try to understand each other's point of view. Be an active listener and let your child talk about fears and concerns. Don't interrupt and don't preach.
Through "teachable moments", in contrast to a formal lecture, use a variety of situations: television news, TV drama, books, newspapers.
Establish an ongoing conversation rather than giving a one-time speech.
Remember that you set the example. Avoid contradictions between your words and your actions. And don't use illegal drugs, period! Even if marijuana is legal.
Learn to read between the lines.
Be creative! You and your child might act out various situations in which one person tries to pressure the other to take a drug. Figure out two or three ways to handle each situation and talk about which works best.
Exchange ideas with other parents.
respect, and genuine curiosity, and the dividends will pour
in when its time to talk about other serious issues.
And guess what, theyll probably listen to you more
often and even come to you for advice when the going gets
tough. How can you go wrong?
Get the Facts:
Alcohol affects your brain. Drinking excess alcohol leads to a loss of coordination, poor judgment, slowed reflexes, distorted vision, memory lapses, and even blackouts.
Alcohol affects your body. Alcohol can damage every organ in your body. It is absorbed directly into your bloodstream and can increase your risk for a variety of life-threatening diseases, including cancer.
Alcohol affects your self-control. Alcohol depresses your central nervous system, lowers your inhibitions, and impairs your judgment. Drinking can lead to risky behaviors, including having unprotected sex. This may expose you to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases or cause unwanted pregnancy.
Alcohol can kill you. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can lead to coma or even death. Also, in 1998, 35.8 percent of traffic deaths of 15- to 20-year-olds were alcohol-related.
Alcohol can hurt
you -- even if you're not the one drinking. If you're
around people who are drinking, you have an increased risk
of being seriously injured, involved in car crashes, or
affected by violence. At the very least, you may have to
deal with people who are sick, out of control, or unable to
take care of themselves.
You Risk It: Know the law. It is illegal to buy
or possess alcohol if you are under 21.
Stay informed. "Binge" drinking means having five or more drinks on one occasion. About 15 percent of teens are binge drinkers in any given month.
Know the risks. Mixing alcohol with medications or illicit drugs is extremely dangerous and can lead to accidental death. For example, alcohol-medication interactions may be a factor in at least 25 percent of emergency room admissions.
Keep your edge. Alcohol can make you gain weight and give you bad breath.
Look around you. Most teens aren't drinking alcohol. Research shows that 70 percent of people 12-20 haven't had a drink in the past month.
Know the Signs: How can you tell if a friend has a drinking problem? Sometimes it's tough to tell. But there are signs you can look for. If your friend has one or more of the following warning signs, he or she may have a problem with alcohol:
What can you do to help someone who has a drinking problem? Be a real friend. You might even save a life. Encourage your friend to stop or seek professional help. For information and referrals, call the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information at 800-729-6686.
Questions & Answers:
Aren't beer and wine "safer" than liquor? No. One 12-ounce beer has about as much alcohol as a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a wine cooler.
Why can't teens drink if their parents can? Teens' bodies are still developing and alcohol has a greater impact on their physical and mental well-being. For example, people who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin at age 21.
How can I say no to alcohol? I'm afraid I won't fit in. Remember, you're in good company. The majority of teens don't drink alcohol. Also, it's not as hard to refuse as you might think. Try: "No thanks," "I don't drink," or "I'm not interested."
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations,
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
binge-drinking on your birthday can lead to dangerous
The study followed 600 soon-to-be 21-year-olds who intended on celebrating their newfound legality by drinking. The researchers followed the subjects for a year and found that those who drank a lot on their birthday drank more heavily afterwards as well.
During the study's follow-up period, people who went all out on their birthdays drank 10 percent more than the typical participant on a night out. When compared to those who never drank before their birthday, the number rose to 17 percent.
In the U.S., if you have one glass of wine a night, you are in the top 30 percent of drinkers. Having two glasses every night puts you in the top 20 percent and 10 drinks per day, according to Stephen Cook's book "Paying The Tab," puts you in the top 10 percent.
So enjoy your birthday, but try not to
go overboard. It could have more consequences than that
dreaded hangover the next morning.
ways to have fun at parties as the only sober person
1. Be the bartender. When you start making drinks for the party, you get to talk to everyone. And everyone is impressed that the sober person makes a damn fine cosmo!
2. Learn some secrets. I always use get-togethers as an opportunity to practice my social skills. I read somewhere that conversations are made up of two or more people vying for attention. Intentionally or not, people often try steering the conversation back to themselves. When I'm at a party, I make a conscious effort to keep the other person talking. People will tell you all sorts of things!
3. Pretend. Just go ahead and sip that straight tonic like it's a gin and tonic. It's like you're under cover. And the weird thing is, people treat you differently when you act like one of them, which leads me to believe that acting drunk is, in large part, psychological. One time, without realizing it, I started slurring my speech after too much time around too many drunks. Lean in to that slur.
4. Order fancy mocktails. Just because you don't drink alcohol doesn't mean you can't have fancy drinks. There are a number of soft beverage recipes out there that are delicious and look classy AF. One of my favorites is a drink from Hong Kong called the gunner. One part ginger beer, one part lemonade, a lime, and several dashes of bitters, the gunner looks like a cocktail and tastes amazing. (Yes, the bitters has alcohol, but the drink calls for so few shakes that it is diluted beyond any sort of perception.)
5. Eat. You have more room for food. Take advantage of that.
6. Practice your stand-up. I think everyone at one time or another has wanted to be a stand-up comicmaking someone laugh is a rush. What better place to work on your routine than a party. Not only drinkers easier to make laugh, they won't remember if you bomb.
7. Just watch. When I am at any
sort of function with drinking, I channel my inner Jane
Goodall. One of my favorite things to do is pick a spot in
the middle of the action, preferably by the food, and stay
there the whole night and just watch. A party is the perfect
place to study all kinds of drunk, human behavior. Witness
complex mating rituals, overt displays of dick measuring,
bizarre eating habits, and other wildly interesting
behavioral patterns. Who am I kidding? Sit back and enjoy
Impaired Driving Toolkit
CADCAs Impaired Driving Prevention Toolkit is designed to provide coalitions, law enforcement partners and drug prevention practitioners with strategies to prevent and reduce impaired driving in their communities. Equipped with the findings from key research in the field, the toolkits Impaired Driving Prevention Strategies highlight CADCAs 7 Strategies for Effective Community Change, with an emphasis on an environmental approach. Grounded in the field of public health, environmental strategies offer well-accepted prevention approaches that coalitions can use to change the context (or environment) in which impaired driving occurs.
The Toolkit offers a variety of strategies aimed at changing or influencing community conditions, standards, institutions, systems and policies. To assist Coalitions with assessing and planning their impaired driving prevention efforts, the Toolkit provides links to significant research and top experts in the field, fact sheets, guidelines for data collection, sample logic models, sample intervention maps and success stories to inform decision making and communication.
here to access CADCAs
Impaired Driving Prevention
Questions & Answers
Why do people take bad or illegal drugs?
There are lots of reasons. Maybe they don't know how dangerous they are. Or maybe they feel bad about themselves or don't know how to handle their problems. Or maybe they don't have parents they can talk to. Why do you think they do it?
Why are some drugs good and some drugs bad for you?
When you get sick, the drugs the doctor gives you will help you get better. But if you take these drugs when you're healthy, they can make you sick. Also, there are some drugs, like marijuana or crack, that are never good for you. To be safe, never ever take any drugs unless Mom, Dad or the doctor says it's okay.
What are some of the warning signs of teen drug abuse?
In fact, according to data from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, numbers are in the single digits among 12-17-year-olds who smoke (2%), drink alcohol (9%) or use marijuana (7%).
Research over the past two decades has taught us a lot that we didnt know before. Using substances as a teen can be harmful and interferes with healthy brain development especially in the parts of the brain that control memory, learning, judgment and emotions. It also significantly increases the risk of lifetime addiction.
Substances today are a lot different than those that you may have encountered as a teen. They are more potent and addictive, and many are marketed in ways that directly appeal to kids.
The good news is that there are things you can do to prevent your teen from experimenting with substances or to intervene if they have. The majority of teens say that their parents are the most important influence on their decisions about whether or not to use substances.
According to the most recent data1, numbers are in the single digits among 12-17-year-olds who smoke (2%), drink alcohol (9%) or use marijuana (7%).
These numbers are encouraging, and as a parent, youre in the best position to keep your child healthy. The majority of teens say their parents are the most important influence on their decisions about whether or not to drink or use drugs.
Any teen use is a concern
Over the past two decades research has helped us understand the unique risks of substance use during the teen years, a time when major changes are taking place in the the brain. Introducing any addictive substance during this sensitive time can have both short- and long-term effects. It can interfere with healthy development especially in the parts of the brain that control memory, learning, judgment and emotions. And it significantly increases the risk of lifetime addiction.
Even if your teen only uses once or once in a while, it can still cause damage and lead to negative consequences, including addiction. Symptoms of nicotine dependence often develop soon after first use. In the case of prescription pain relievers, even prescribed use during adolescence is associated with a higher risk of opioid addiction in early adulthood.
What works for prevention
A childs sex, race, economic background or most other demographic characteristics cant predict whether or not theyll use substances. Everyone is different and some teens are at a higher or lower risk for substance use than others. But no child is immune, no matter their grades or how involved, or who theyre friends with.
There are many reasons why young people use or try substances. In some cases, it can be as simple as being offered a drink or vape. To encourage healthy decision making, we recommend parents focus on fostering their childs:
Schools cant be the only source of information about substance use. Substance use prevention that involves the family has been found to be the most effective. Not all schools have adequate prevention programming, and no school is able to tailor its programming to the needs of each individual child.
Even if schools do have prevention strategies, parents play an even more important role in helping children navigate the world and make healthy decisions. You are uniquely positioned to identify early signs of trouble in your childs life, many of which might not be noticeable to even the most-dedicated school professional. Regular and honest communication with your child is key.
Modeling healthy behavior
Modeling healthy behavior which may include drinking responsibly is a good thing. But allowing teens to use substances in a safe or supervised manner sends the wrong message and doesnt protect against future problems.
Alcohol use simply isnt safe for young people. And evidence shows that starting use at a young age increases the chance of later addiction to one or more substances.
There is a common misconception that the cultural norms around alcohol in Europe which is more permissive of teen drinking lead to better outcomes. The rates of alcohol problems among youth and adults are actually higher in Europe. According to international data from the World Health Organization (ESPAD)4, European teens consistently report higher levels of drinking, binge drinking and alcohol-related problems compared to youth in the United States.
An extra word of caution
substances are more harmful than those you may have been
exposed to as a teen. Most substances today are more potent
and addictive than in the past, and many are marketed in
ways that directly appeal to kids.
Substances Are More Harmful than Those You May Have Been
Exposed to as a Teen
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains an urgent public health problem. Longitudinal data are needed to clarify the role of acute subjective responses to alcohol in the development and maintenance of excessive drinking and AUD. The authors report on 10 years of repeated examination of acute alcohol responses in the Chicago Social Drinking Project.
Young adult drinkers (N=190) participated in an initial alcohol challenge (0.8 g/kg of alcohol compared with placebo) that was repeated 5 and 10 years later. They were also assessed on drinking behavior and AUD symptoms at numerous intervals across the decade. Retention was high, as 184 of the 185 (99%) nondeceased active participants completed the 10-year follow-up, and 91% (163 of 179) of those eligible for alcohol consumption engaged in repeated laboratory testing during this interval.
At the end of the decade, 21% of participants met criteria for past-year AUD. Individuals who reported the greatest alcohol stimulation, liking, and wanting at the initial alcohol challenge were most likely to have developed AUD 10 years later. Further, alcohol-induced stimulation and wanting increased in reexamination testing among those with the highest AUD symptoms as the decade progressed.
Initial stimulant and
rewarding effects of alcohol predicted heavy alcohol use,
and the magnitude of these positive subjective effects
increased over a 10-year period in those who developed AUD
compared with those who did not develop the disorder. The
findings demonstrate systematic changes in subjective
responses to alcohol over time, providing an empirical basis
for prevention, early intervention, and treatment
How is alcohol use related to suicidal risk?
Alcohol increases impulsivity and decreases inhibition. It increases negative self-image and decreases self-esteem; deepens depression and social isolation; and rises with the amount and length of time alcohol is consumed. Alcohol use fosters either/or and all or nothing thinking, and a lower concern for the future consequences of ones actions. Many suicide attempts occur during binge drinking.
Among those who are alcohol dependent, 18% complete suicide. Alcohol plays a major role in suicides among elders and veterans. In suicides associated with alcohol misuse men account for 80% of the victims, women for 20%. Alcohol use is also often a factor in suicidal behavior among male teens.
What are the main risk factors for suicide linked to alcohol use?
What about co-occurring disorders?
Co-occurring alcohol abuse and mental illness significantly increases risk. Those who misuse alcohol and street or prescription drugs have a 40 times greater risk of suicide. Co-occurrence opens an individuals exposure to more suicide risk factors, weakens family supports, and lessens the likelihood of help and intervention.
What about chronic suicidality?
Many chronic alcohol misusers make frequent suicide threats, but often have vague plans and low intent to die. This behavior is commonly coincident with demands for immediate shelter, hospitalization, detox, rehab or other help. Such contingent threats (If you dont I will ) are often regarded as manipulation. Nonetheless most chronic suiciders have multiple serious risk factors and may be at increasing risk of suicide.
What are the immediate danger signs of suicide?
Immediately call 610-279-6100, 9-1-1, or 1-800- 273-TALK (National Suicide Lifeline) or text SOS to 741741 if you encounter:
alcohol and other drug abuse increase the risk for suicide?
In studies that
examine risk factors among people who have completed
suicide, substance use and abuse occurs more frequently
among youth and adults, compared to older persons. For
particular groups at risk, such as American Indians and
Alaskan Natives, depression and alcohol use and abuse are
the most common risk factors for completed suicide. Alcohol
and substance abuse problems contribute to suicidal behavior
in several ways. Persons who are dependent on substances
often have a number of other risk factors for suicide. In
addition to being depressed, they are also likely to have
social and financial problems. Substance use and abuse can
be common among persons prone to be impulsive, and among
persons who engage in many types of high risk behaviors that
result in self-harm. Fortunately, there are a number of
effective prevention efforts that reduce risk for substance
abuse in youth, and there are effective treatments for
alcohol and substance use problems. Researchers are
currently testing treatments specifically for persons with
substance abuse problems who are also suicidal, or have
attempted suicide in the past.
Suicide Risk Increases With Age
Drinking alcohol has been linked to a number of suicides and suicidal attempts. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration, a diagnosis of alcohol misuse or dependence is associated with a suicide risk that is 10 times greater than those in the general population.1?
Of those medically treated after a suicide attempt, alcohol use disorders were found to be a significant factor, with acute alcohol intoxication present in about 30% to 40% of cases.1?
Now there is evidence that suicide risk among alcoholics increases as they become older as well. People with alcohol use disorder who are middle-aged and older are at a significantly higher risk for suicide compared to their younger counterparts.
This could prove to be a significant factor for baby boomers, many of whom have substance use problems, as they begin to reach retirement age.
Increased Risk of Suicide
The statistics are the result of a study published in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.2? Lead author Kenneth R. Conner, assistant professor at the University of Rochester Medical Center, notes that "This was the first study of a sample of adults across the age spectrum that explicitly focused on factors that increase the risk for suicide and medically serious suicide attempts associated with ?alcohol dependence."
For the purposes of the study, a medically serious suicide attempt was defined as one that required hospital admission for up to 24 hours. It also needed to meet one other criterion that described the type of treatment received.
"Data were gathered from medically serious attempters because they are a subgroup of suicide attempters who engaged in the especially dangerous behavior, suggesting a high intent to die," said Conner. Even if not successful the first time, he notes that the risk of dying in subsequent attempts is higher.
In general, adolescents and young adults are at the highest risk for attempted suicides throughout the world. Yet, most of these attempts do not result in death. In contrast, though the attempts may be less frequent, men over age 65 are at the greatest risk for completed suicide.
To researchers, this reinforced the idea that there are different patterns related to age and suicide. This finding was backed up by a later 2017 study that found an increase in suicide attempts in older people who did and did not have substance use problems.3? Among the concerns is the fact that the compounding life experiences of older alcoholics are not the same as their younger counterparts.
Placing all ages into one group is not an accurate way to gauge the suicide risks of either alcoholics or non-alcoholics.
Medically Serious Suicide Attempts
The Rochester researchers examined data gathered by Annette L. Beautrais and colleagues for the Canterbury Suicide Project. This is a case-control study of suicides, medically serious suicide attempts, and randomly selected comparison subjects from the Canterbury region of New Zealand.
All subjects in the study were 18 years of age or older: 193 (149 males, 44 females) had died by committing suicide; 240 (114 males, 126 females) had made a medically serious suicide attempt; and 984 (476 males, 508 females) were controls. Researchers compared demographic and diagnostic variables.
Increased Vulnerability of Older Adults
The results found that there is indeed a link between alcohol dependence and suicide becomes amplified with age.4? Increased age also amplified the association between mood disorders and suicide. Overall, researchers in this field continue to look at the associations between age, alcohol use disorder, and suicide.
In addition to these factors, many experts note that mood disorders like depression must also be accounted for as they can also make older adults more vulnerable.
It is believed that
older adults with alcohol use disorder are at a higher risk
of suicide because of the emotional and physical tolls their
addictions take over the years. The results of these studies
serve as a warning that anyone dealing with
alcoholismtheir own or that of a loved oneshould
be aware of the warning signs of suicidal
be prepared to get help.
Alcohol is a significant factor when it comes to a persons risk of suicide. In fact, a person addicted to alcohol is up to 120 times more likely to commit suicide than someone with no substance use disorder. Getting treatment for alcohol addiction is the best way to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions as a result of alcohol abuse.
Alcohol abuse and addiction have been linked to a number of health problems and other consequences. These include social, financial, and work problems as well as the risk of overdose and disease. However, there is one consequence that is commonly overlooked the increased risk of suicide.
Alcohol is a component in an estimated 25 percent of all suicides in the United States. Additionally, its been found that suicide is up to 120 percent more likely among adult alcoholics than the general population. These statistics are alarming and should not be taken lightly.
There are several ways that alcohol abuse and addiction may contribute to the risk of suicide. Lets look at the relationship between alcohol and suicide.
Risk Factors Associated With Alcohol Abuse And Suicide
Alcohol abuse and addiction and suicide have a number of risk factors in common. For example, genetics play a role in the development of both conditions. However, its important to note that having one or many risk factors doesnt necessarily mean a person will experience alcohol addiction or suicide.
Common risk factors that may influence a persons predisposition to alcohol addiction and/or suicide include:
Additional risk factors for both alcohol addiction and suicide may include unemployment, poverty, and loss.
There are also certain risk factors that are specific to each condition. For example, a previous suicide attempt is one of the strongest risk factors associated with future suicidal behavior. Stressors such as an alcohol relapse or the loss of a loved one can also directly influence a persons risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
Danger Signs Of Alcohol-Related Suicide Risk
Its not always easy to determine when someone is in danger of suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Many people experiencing both suicidal tendencies and alcohol addiction stay quiet about their conditions. However, there are some signs that may indicate that someone is at an increased risk of alcohol-related suicide.
Danger signs of alcohol-induced suicidal thoughts or behaviors include:
Danger signs of suicide should not be ignored. Even if the person appears to be joking, stress or another negative event could trigger the person to act on a suicidal impulse.
Prevention Of Alcohol-Related Suicide
Seeking treatment for co-occurring alcohol addiction and depression is the best way to prevent the possibility of alcohol-induced suicide. While research on suicide and alcohol addiction treatment is limited, great success has been shown in treating a dual diagnosis of addiction and depression.
Individuals suffering from these conditions often find the most success through formal treatment programs specializing in dual diagnosis. This may include inpatient or residential treatment. Many inpatient programs offer comprehensive plans of recovery to address every aspect of a persons dual diagnosis.
Many people will
experience decreased depression symptoms like suicidal
thoughts after a period of abstinence from alcohol. However,
most people will need to continue with long-term mental
health treatment for the best results.
Alcohol and Suicide Linked?
Drunk With Suicidal Thoughts
Doctors know that suicide and alcohol use go hand-in-hand. Being drunk plays a role in many suicide attempts. Many people are more suicidal when drunk than when they are sober. Doctors think this happens because being drunk loosens the self-restraint you feel. Drunk people are known to have a hard time weighing the pros and cons of decisions, and finding solutions to problems. Therefore, you may have suicidal thoughts after drinking. When you are sober, even though you may think about suicide, you have the self-control to not do it because you can think through your actions. This control goes away when you are drunk, possibly leading to a higher risk of suicide. Doctors believe that drunk people tend to be more depressed than when they are sober. The combination of these two factors leads to a higher risk of suicide when you are drunk.
Alcoholic With Suicidal Thoughts
People who struggle with alcohol use are at a much higher risk of suicide than other people. Studies have shown that people who have problems with alcohol have a suicide rate up to 10 times higher than others. Forty percent of people who received treatment for a drinking problem report having tried suicide at least once. Men are at a higher risk than women. Doctors think that people struggling with alcohol and thinking about suicide may have a lower risk of suicide if they quit drinking.
There is an even higher risk of suicide in people who struggle with alcohol use if they also have depression. Suicidal alcoholic depression can be deadly. A few different studies found that more than 80% of people who committed suicide have a history of not only alcohol misuse, but also depression. Doctors think it is possible that excessive alcohol use in some people is their way of trying to treat their depression.
How To Help An Alcoholic With Suicidal Thoughts
It can sometimes be hard to know if someone is thinking of suicide. Some of the warning signs that someone is thinking of suicide include if the person:
If you believe a loved one is thinking of suicide, it is crucial to seek emergency help as soon as you can. Ccall1-800-273-8255, or text SOS to 741741 24/7
The way you talk to someone thinking about suicide can also be very important. If you are wondering how to help a suicidal alcoholic, some tips include:
Alcohol Suicide Statistics
Alcohol is involved in many suicide attempts. Studies show that about 39% of emergency room visits for suicide attempts involve alcohol mixed with other drugs. Many other attempts end up being successful cases of suicide by alcohol: 22% of deaths by suicide occur in drunk people.
Key points: Alcohol and Suicidal Thoughts
Important points about alcohol and suicide include:
suicide attempts by middle aged adults likely to involve
alcohol combined with drugs
According to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), an estimated 228,366 emergency department (ED) visits were for drug-related suicide attempts in 2011. Of these, middle-aged patients aged 35 to 64 accounted for 99,559 of these visits. About 39 percent (38,616 visits) of ED visits for drug-related suicide attempts by middle-aged patients involved alcohol combined with other drugs. In contrast, only 24 percent of other drug-related ED visits (excluding adverse reactions) by middle-aged patients involved alcohol combined with other drugs.
Although substance abuse problems are not always present in patients who visit the ED for drug-related suicide attempts, alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with suicidal behavior.3 People who are seriously considering suicide may have a lower risk of suicide attempts after they stop using drugs and alcohol, compared with those who are suicidal and are still using drugs or alcohol.4 Therefore, families, friends, clinicians, and suicide prevention programs should consider encouraging those at risk for suicide to abstain from using alcohol and drugs.
1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables (Tables 2.77B and 2.79B). Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsTOC2012.htm
2. Sullivan, E. M., Annest, J. L., Luo, F., Simon, T. R., & Dahlberg, L. L. (2013). Suicide among adults aged 3564 yearsUnited States, 19992010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(17), 321325. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6217a1.htm
3. Borges, G., Walters, E. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Associations of substance use, abuse and dependence with subsequent suicidal behavior. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151(8), 781-789.
4. Han, B.,
Compton, W. M., Gfroerer, J., & McKeon, R. (2015).
Prevalence and correlates of past 12-month suicide attempt
among adults with past-year suicidal ideation in the United
States. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 76(3),
and Suicide Risk 1/15/21
Suicide, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts are major concerns for people who abuse alcohol, as alcohol use can lead to impaired judgment, decreased inhibitions, and impulsiveness.
When discussing suicide, its important to be aware of different terms: suicide is death caused by behaviors you engage in with the intent to die, suicidal attempts are potentially injurious behaviors that are intended to cause death but ultimately do not, and suicidal ideation involves planning for or otherwise contemplating suicide.1
If you (or someone you care about) have thoughts of self-harm or are thinking of taking action to hurt yourself, you should know that help is available and that youre not alone. There is always a place to turn, no matter how dire or hopeless your situation may seem in the moment.
Reaching out for assistance and seeking appropriate treatment for alcohol abuse is one of the best ways to obtain support, overcome the addiction to alcohol, and prevent suicide.
Scope of the Problem
Suicide is a serious global health issue and one of the biggest preventable causes of death in the United States. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), close to 800,000 people commit suicide each year around the world.2 Globally, theres approximately one death every 40 seconds from suicide.3
In the United States, there were more than 47,000 deaths due to suicide in 2017.1 Suicide is the second leading cause of death for people between the ages of 10 and 34 and the fourth leading cause of death for those between ages 35 and 54.1
In 2017, more than twice as many suicides were committed in the U.S. than homicides.1 Further, between 1999 and 2018, the suicide rate increased by 35%, from 10.5 per 100,000 people to 14.2.4 In those same years, the suicide rate for males was between 3.5 and 4.5 times the rate for females.4
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, around 4% of adults aged 18 or older had serious thoughts of suicide in the past 12 months.5 Past survey results have indicated that firearms were the most common method of suicide among men, while women were more likely to commit suicide by poisoning (which includes drugs and alcohol).1
Certain populations have a higher risk of suicide. These include American Indians, Alaska Natives, people who have lost someone to suicide, people involved in the criminal justice and child welfare systems, people who engage in self-harming behaviors, people who have medical conditions, people with mental health and/or substance use disorders, members of the LGBT community, veterans and members of the armed forces, men in midlife, and older men.5
How Prevalent is Substance Abuse and Suicide in the US?
Suicide is one of the major causes of death in the U.S. among people who struggle with a substance use disorder (SUD).5 Although theres a well-established connection between suicide and alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between suicide and other types of substance abuse.4 There is some indication, however, that the number of substances being used may more closely predict suicide than the specific types of substances a person uses.5
Previous estimates from the CDC have indicated that approximately 22% of suicides involve blood alcohol content (BAC) levels at or above the legal limit.5 The CDC has also indicated that 20% of suicides involve opioids (such as heroin and prescription opioid painkillers), 10.2% marijuana use, 4.6% cocaine use, and 3.4% amphetamine use.5
Between 2000 and 2018, there were 1,677,435 suicide attempts among people aged 10-25 that involved self-poisoning. The most serious outcomes were due to the use of over-the-counter analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen), antidepressants, antihistamines, and antipsychotics.6
How Does Alcohol Abuse Affect Suicide and Suicidal Attempts?
Acute alcohol intoxication is involved in 30-40% of all suicide attempts.5 Past studies have suggested that heavy drinkers may have a suicide risk 5 times that of social drinkers, while people with issues of alcohol abuse or dependence may have a suicide risk 10 times greater than the general population. 3,5
Suicide and alcohol abuse are both complex issues that develop as a result of a wide range of factors that can vary by individual circumstances. In addition to contributing factors such as decreased inhibitions and poor judgment, an increased risk of suicidal behavior could stem from alcohols potential to increase psychological distress and aggressive behavior.7 Alcohol can also impair cognition, leading to individuals forgoing healthy coping strategies.7
People who have co-occurring mood disorders (particularly depressive disorders) and struggle with alcohol abuse may have a relatively higher risk of suicide than those with no mental health issues, and this risk may become more pronounced with age.9 This is particularly true in middle-aged and older men.9
A systematic review of 31 studies investigated the relationship between alcohol use disorder (AUD), the diagnostic term used for alcoholism, and suicide. The results showed a significant relationship between AUD and suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide. The researchers concluded that a diagnosis of AUD is a significant predictor of suicide and great source of premature death.10
Treatment for Suicidal Behaviors and Alcoholism
Whether youre seeking treatment for yourself or youre concerned about a loved one, know that there are many ways to help prevent suicide and stop alcohol abuse. Many people in similar situations have benefited from a combination of mental health and substance abuse treatment.
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), specific programs that provide support and life skills training have been shown to help protect people from both suicide and substance abuse.5 Identifying and treating alcoholism is a crucial component of suicide prevention.3 A failure to identify specific alcohol-related disorders can result in both increased morbidity and mortality of those at risk of suicide. 3
Behavioral approaches to treating alcoholism should also incorporate specific therapeutic elements, including social skills training, goal setting, and education on relapse prevention. Evidence-based approaches used to treat alcoholism include:11
Suicide hotlines are designed to assist people contemplating suicide or otherwise in distress by providing emotional support and connecting them with crisis resources. The following resources offer confidential services, so you dont have to provide any identifying information if you dont want to.
The SAMHSA helpline at 1-800-662-4357 or TTY 1-800-487-4889. This confidential, free, 24/7, 365-day-a-year information service is available in English and Spanish for people and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. It is not a crisis hotline, but it provides information and referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.
Its important to
call 911 or a hotline right away if you or a friend or
family member are in danger or are actively considering
suicide. Dont delay in reaching out for help.
Relationship Between Alcohol & Suicide
Statistics: Alcohol & Suicide
Talking About Suicide Doesn't Cause it
It is a common misconception that by asking someone about suicide, you might plant the idea in their head or cause them to consider it. The research is clear that this is not the case. If you are concerned about a loved one, ask them about suicide, and do it directly:
If the answer to any of the above questions is yes, also find out what keeps them from following through.
Call a crisis phone line 800-273-8255 or text line 741741 or 9-1-1 if your loved one cant commit to stay safe or you have reason to believe that they may follow through on thoughts or suicide. Even if you believe they are safe for the time being, it is important that they seek counseling to address underlying depression, trauma, and other contributing factors.
Suicidal Thoughts & Self-harm Behaviors are Not the Same Thing
Self-harming behaviors can result in accidental death, but generally, the intention behind self-harm is not death. People may self-harm as a form of self-punishment, to distract from emotional pain, or to relieve a feeling of numbness and disconnection. It is important to determine a persons intention in self-harming.
Signs of Suicidal Thoughts
Suicide is Preventable: Help is Available
The first step in addressing thoughts of suicide is to tell a trusted adult. Dont be alone with these thoughts. A professional can help you get treatment for underlying depression, learn to work through and express difficult emotions and help you develop coping skills for dealing with hard situations.
Limit access to
firearms and medications does not entirely prevent suicide.
However, studies show that limiting access to these common
means of suicide makes people less likely to complete
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death around the globe, but it is a topic that most people feel uncomfortable talking about. Despite how frequently it occurs, there is a great taboo against people taking their own life. It is viewed as a drastic action because it is irreversible. Family members of those who have committed suicide can be deeply impacted by the event. Not only will they have to deal with the loss but also the social stigma attached to it. Many of those who are left behind will never completely come to terms with what happened.
There is a close relationship between alcohol consumption and suicide. Excessive drinking may not be the direct cause of the suicidal thoughts, but intoxication can give the individual the mindset to take their own life. It seems almost certain that in many cases the people who committed suicide would not have gone through with it if they had been sober. The pattern of alcohol consumption that is most often associated with suicide is binge drinking.
Binge Drinking Defined
Those who binge drink are consuming alcohol with the intention of feeling the effects of intoxication. In practice this means that the individual consumes a large quantity of alcohol in a short period of time with the intention of getting drunk. This may be a behavior that the individual only engages in once or twice a week, but it can still be highly dangerous. In the US it is standard to define binge drinking as:
In the above example a drink is a standard beer, a glass of wine, or a bar shot of standard spirits.
Suicide can be defined as the act or an instance of taking ones own life voluntarily and intentionally. It also involves any thoughts, plans or attempts of the individual to end their own life. This act of committing suicide is often referred to as, a permanent solution to a temporary problem. This refers to the fact that, at least in the eyes of other people, the reasons to justify the suicide are usually solvable problems. Ending life is a shame when there are other less drastic options open to the individual.
Causes of Suicide
There are many reasons for why an individual might attempt suicide including:
Relationship between Binge Drinking and Suicide
Those individuals who successfully commit suicide will often have high blood alcohol concentrations. In fact alcohol use is the most frequently cited factor associated with suicidal behavior. It is likely that in many instances the end of life would have been prevented if the individual had not been binge drinking. The individual may have been already thinking of suicide but intoxication can produce the mental state that allows them to complete this act.
Reasons Why Binge Drinking Increases Risk of Suicide
There are a number of reasons for why binge drinking increases the risk of suicide including:
Binge Drinking and Teen Suicide
There is a strong relationship between teen suicide and binge drinking. It is suggested that those young people who adopt this pattern of drinking are four times more likely to commit suicide. Those teenagers who are binge drinking and who are dealing with stressful events in their life are the most at risk. It is suggested that 90% of the alcohol consumed by teenagers is in the form of binge drinking. As well as increasing their risk for suicide this pattern of drinking can also:
Other Dangers Associated with Binge Drinking
The binge drinker may not consume alcohol every day but this does not mean that they will escape the mental and physical problems associated with alcohol abuse. As well as an increased risk of committing suicide the binge drinker will also be at risk of:
This summer UK holiday hotspots like Newquay in Cornwall are preparing for the arrival of an army of young people ready to celebrate the end of their exams. Some will have crates of beer in the car boot, or bottles of vodka in their rucksacks. And some of it will have been bought for them by their parents.
If youre considering buying your son or daughter booze to take away on a holiday, camping trip or festival then youre not alone. Our latest research reveals that one in 10 parents (13%) have done so, with more than half (53%) buying them five or more bottles of spirits.
For some parents, sending teenagers and their friends off on holiday with a crate of beer may seem like a good way to help them celebrate. Our research shows that they also believe its a way to keep control over their teenagers drinking.
One in five (22%) parents we surveyed admitted that they bought booze for their kids to keep tabs on their alcohol consumption. A third (36%) said theyd prefer to give their children alcohol rather than leaving them to get it from an unknown source.
But the truth is that when alcohol is put in inexperienced hands, it can make young people vulnerable to some difficult or dangerous situations. A lot of parents also don't realise that supplying alcohol to a child to consume outside of the home unsupervised is illegal.
Alcohol can create dangerous situations because of the way it lowers inhibitions and affects judgment your child is more likely to start an argument, have an accident, or forget to use a condom if theyve been drinking.
Alcohol affects motor skills too. This means that young people who have drunk alcohol to excess are more likely to be involved in accidents. Sometimes these accidents have tragic consequences, like the death of the two teenagers who fell off cliffs in Newquay after theyd been drinking last year.
According to their parents, when drinking alcohol:
A question of trust
According to the Chief Medical Officer for England and Wales, an alcohol-free childhood is best. The official guidelines go on to recommend that 15 to 17-year-olds should only drink when supervised by a parent or other adult, and definitely no more than once a week. The guidelines don't cover supplying alcohol to a child to consume outside of the home without supervison because it is against the law.
You may trust your teenagers to drink a small amount of alcohol around the house when supervised, but sending them off with their own supply can be very different. Even if you trust your teenagers to drink sensibly, thats no guarantee that others wont act irresponsibly around them, which could get them into trouble.
Luckily, as a parent theres plenty you can do to keep your teenagers safe, even when youre not around. Start by making sure that they feel able to ask you questions about alcohol and can come to you with any problems. The effects of alcohol often turn up in the news, soap operas or films, which can be a good opportunity to discuss drinking with them.
For the facts about alcohol and young people, plus techniques for talking to your kids about the dangers, download our Your kids and alcohol guide. Our factsheets on alcohol and young people are also packed with useful information and practical tips designed to help them get clued-up about booze.
Waving your teenagers off on holiday
can be a brilliant feeling. But knowing that theyll
stay safe while theyre away from home is even better.
Giving your kids the facts about alcohol, and thinking twice
about buying for them, is a great start.
Download any of our four factsheets from the below links.
All the information we provide is checked by our Medical Officer so you can rest assured that all the content is accurate and up to date.
Our Factsheets can be used alongside our workshop plans and materials.
alcohol and young people
New research: Mispredicting happiness across the adult lifespan: implications for the risky health behaviour of young people
A study of over 1000 Northern Ireland citizens aged over 15 conducted in 2007 found that those who negatively misjudged happiness in later life, more likely to be young people, were more likely to binge drink, affecting young men in particular. The authors felt that their findings had implications for messaging aimed at young men, that is, that it should focus on correcting these myths about decreasing happiness levels and emphasis the positive impacts of reducing alcohol consumption and other healthy lifestyle choices.
Do Parents and Best Friends Influence the Normative Increase in Adolescents Alcohol Use at Home and Outside the Home?
The Netherlands (as well as elsewhere in Europe) tend to advise parents to socialise their childrens alcohol use to limit future problems. This research looked at the impact of parental supervision on Dutch adolescent later alcohol use both inside and outside the home, as well as the impact of drinking with a best friend, the drinking behaviour of parents and siblings, and the links between these factors on future problem drinking. The results showed that parental supervision did not appear to have any moderating effect on adolescent alcohol use outside of the home, that adolescents who drank within the home (with or without parents) were more likely to drink outside the home. The report recommends that that rather than introducing alcohol use, parents should try to delay it, in and out of the home, for as long as possible in their adolescent children. These findings cannot necessarily be easily related to the UK with its different drinking culture but are obviously interesting in light of the recent CMO guidance. Go to website for report
Do maternal parenting practices predict problematic patterns of adolescent alcohol consumption?
Using data from an Australian longitudinal study of mothers and their children from pregnancy to age 14, the authors examined whether problematic adolescent drinking patterns were linked to maternal parenting when the child was aged 5. Its main findings show that low maternal control at age 5 more strongly predicted occasional drinking patterns at age 14, and that frequent maternal partner change together with lower control were the circumstances most heavily linked to problematic drinking patterns in adolescence. This paper reinforces the role that parents own behaviour can play in affecting the way their child interacts with alcohol in the future. Go to website for report
R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects
A study of American young people aged 10-14, which observed them over a 2 year period. It concludes that watching R-rated (roughly equivalent to a 15 certificate in the UK) films was associated with an increase in sensation seeking behaviour among the young people, and increased their probability of initiating alcohol use. Allowing that personality can affect sensation seeking, the researchers showed that watching R-rated films raised the probability of alcohol initiation among low sensation seeking adolescents to around the same levels as those of highly exposed-high sensation seeker adolescents, and that the films had a lesser effect among those who already had high levels of sensation seeking. The study is an important contribution to the literature showing links between media exposure and alcohol consumption among young people. Go to website for report
Two of the researchers have also just recently released a follow up showing restricting R-rated film among young people makes them substantially less likely to start drinking than their peers who are allowed to see such films:
Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices
This study looked at university students from two universities in Australia, some involved with sports, others not, and examined in part whether depictions of particular sports stars in the media as heavy drinkers affected the drinking patterns of young people. The researchers found that contrary to this, the students perceived sports stars, even high-profile sports stars, as drinking less than themselves and their friends. These sports stars may not, therefore, be the negative role models they are sometimes held to be. The researchers concluded rather that (mis)perceptions of drinking norms among peer groups were more stronger predictors for heavier alcohol use, and among sportspeople, the after-sport celebrations/commemorations.
While this study did not specifically look at under 18s it remains interesting to those working with young people. It is definitely an area that may need further research to see if the same can be said of younger adolescents. Go to website for report
Key research reports
Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England
An annual report issued by NHS Information Centre, this document is an essential tool for keeping track of the changes in the drinking habits of Englands 11-15 year olds. Its focus on drugs as well as alcohol provides some very useful contextual information. Go to website for report
Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS)
This series of school surveys is used to monitor and measure smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in Scotland. The latest report was completed by over 10,000 pupils aged 13 years old and 15 years old across Scotland. Go to website for report
European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD)
ESPAD is the largest cross-national research project on adolescent substance use in the world. Around forty different European countries are part of this project, enabling professionals to look at use of alcohol in the UK in context with that of neighbouring countries. Go to website for report
Chief Medical Officers Guidance on alcohol use by young people (2009)
Accompanying the guidance consulted on by the CMO this year, chapter 5 reviewed the epidemiological evidence on alcohol and young people, particularly looking at alcohols impact on brain development, and the link between early use of alcohol and later misuse and alcohol use disorders. Go to website for report
DCSF Use of Alcohol among Children and Young People (2008)
An extensive qualitative study that sought to understand attitudes towards and consumption of alcohol among children, young people and their parents. It also looked at which factors contributed to a non-drinking attitude and barriers that exist with relation to stopping drinking or listening to messages about alcohol. The study applied its findings to thinking about the appropriate design of alcohol interventions and messaging, as well as the role of current communication and advertising campaigns in influencing the lifestyle choices of families. Go to website for report (Inactive)
DCSF& Thomas Coram Research Unit Young People and Alcohol - Meanings, Practices and Contexts (2009)
Following on from the 2008 study, this study delved further into the role of alcohol and alcohol misuse in the lives of young people. This project combined qualitative studies with young people with three literature reviews on risk and protective factors , alcohol prevention programmes and effects of national policies. Go to website for report (Inactive)
NICE Interventions in schools to prevent and reduce alcohol use among children and young people (2007)
This edition of NICEs public health guidance series focuses on the importance of alcohol education in schools. It makes a number of recommendations on the most effective methods of interventions as well as gives some guiding principles and messages to all those working with young people in relation to alcohol. Go to website for report
Drug and Alcohol Findings Individual And Contextual Effects Of School Adjustment On Adolescent Alcohol Use. (Summary Only) (2009)
Of particular interest to teachers, this paper looks at the links between a general school ethos, a pupils engagement with school life, and its positive correlations with their level of alcohol use. We link to a D&A Findings summary here- the full text is available only on payment. Go to website for report
Joseph Rowntree Foundation Alcohol prevention programmes (2009)
A recently released literature review conducted by Professor Richard Velleman for JRF, it examines the various existing programmes, both formal and informal, aimed at reducing or preventing alcohol use among young people. Based on this evidence it makes recommendations for a how a universal prevention programme might be delivered. It is accompanied on the site by another review looking at how young people develop their attitudes towards alcohol, and other very interesting papers. Go to website for report
Cochrane Review Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people(2007)
A systematic review of a number of alcohol prevention programmes, this review is cautious in its evaluation of the evidence, but has some interesting comments about particular interventions, including the Strengthening Families Programme from the US. Go to website for report
We'd like to thank Andrew Brown from
Education Forum for his help
in putting this list together.
Booze is the answer. I can't remember the question.
Think about it!